Stratum 5: Cave Deposit


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This deep deposit was formed by the decaying of the limestone ceiling, termed here as “cave fill.”  It is composed of rock flour and small angular fragments of limestone. Ranging up to 5 feet in thickness, this stratum is divided into seven sub-strata, recognized by slight variations in color and texture and/or separation from other layers by intervening sterile sediment. This includes three strands of sterile red clay, each of which cap a layer of cave fill containing cultural materials. These red clays served as useful markers for the excavators.

Stratum 5 also contains the Paleoindian double grave which was dug in from Sub-Stratum 5G and extended into 5E. In the profile above, the positions of the adult and juvenile burials are denoted with the letters "A" and "J". The profile graphic above is a composite based on a drawing at the east-west 45-foot line and the grave drawing at the 43-foot line. (Information about the discovery of the grave is included in the 5G section as well as in the section, Paleoindian Grave).

Image of an arrow head
Wall profile showing Stratum 5 with the three red clay strands labeled Sub-strata 5B, 5C, and 5D as they join together in one large strand at the front section. Devoid of artifacts, the red clays cap occupation zones in the cave fill, and were useful markers for the excavators. The white vertical marks on the wall are pick marks. Photo by Albert Redder.