Sub-Stratum 5E: Upper member—clean cave fill

Redder observed that this layer looked just like the lower member, "clean and sparkling white." However, some cultural debris was found.

It was unique because of the cemented deposit it contained. This was described as a very uneven layer (from 2 to 12 inches thick) of cave deposit that has been cemented to the consistency of concrete. Removing the layer required a large pick and the expenditure of much energy. After the concreted material was removed and the excavation walls were straightened and profiled, it appeared the same as the rest of the deposit, except for pick marks on its face.  Consequently, Redder did not draw it on the wall profile charts. Frank Watt used this cemented deposit to divide the cave fill into the upper and lower members.

One graver was found in a nodule of this matrix, after it had been tossed outside and weathered. One half of a quartzite cobble also was recovered in this sub-stratum; the other half was found in Stratum 7, outside the dripline.

Redder noted at the time: "I do not fully understand this cementing process. It is evident on the floor and back wall, as well as in the 'Plainview' levels of red sand."


Uniface and graver from Sub-Stratum 5E. Photo by Albert Redder.
Quartzite cobble fragment. The other half of this specimen was recovered in Stratum 7.