The abundance of end scrapers at many Toyah sites shows the importance of hide
processing. The replica was made by Jimmy Bluhm using asphaltum adhesive, a method used by some Toyah
groups with access to coastal resources. The archeological specimens at the top are from the Hinojosa
site near Alice, Texas and show some of the range in variation in size and shape among this artifact
class. The small “thumb-nail” scrapers are particularly common at some sites, but rather large scrapers
were favored at others.