Archeology in the Sulphur and Cypress Drainages
The Sulphur River and Big Cypress Creek drainages were home to major Caddo
settlements throughout Caddo history, especially the middle and lower sections of the drainages nearest the Red. The upper part of the Sulphur drainage was heavily settled only during the period between about A.D. 1000-1400.
During Late Caddo times the Big Cypress drainage was home to a series of localized communities with strong expressions of community identity, as seen most clearly in the distinct pottery designs and styles from place to place. Collectively these communities are referred to as the Titus phase, one of the best-known phases in all of Caddo history. Titus phase sites were targeted by University of Texas archeologists in the 1930s to acquire museum specimens, and have been investigated more recently by many different organizations and consulting firms primarily because of the development of lignite mines in the area.