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Credits and Sources

The Hueco Tanks exhibit was written with the help and input of numerous people. Texas Parks and Wildlife Archeologist Margaret Howard and TBH Co-Editor Susan Dial are the primary authors. Dial also created the exhibit and K-12 activities. TBH Editorial Assistant Heather Smith developed the exhibit and interactives for the web.

Articles or reports by TPWD biologist David Riskind, Thomas R. Van Devender, and historian Terri Myer are excerpted in part for use in this exhibit. Archeologist Ron Ralph, Hueco Tanks park manager Wanda Olzewski, TPWD cultural resources coordinator (Fort Davis region) Tim Roberts, and TPWD archeologist Logan McNatt  provided images and insights to the effort. Much of the remarkable photography seen throughout the exhibit is the work of Robert Mark and Evelyn Billo of Rupestrian Cyberservices and was provided to TBH courtesy of Texas Parks and Wildlife. Images from interpretive displays and exhibits at the El Paso Museum of Archeology and Centennial Museum of University of Texas at El Paso are featured throughout. Marc Thompson, director of EPMA, also consulted on rock art interpretations.

photo of TPWD survey crew at Hueco Tanks
TPWD survey crew at Hueco Tanks. Team Leader Margaret Howard is shown at top right. On front row is TPWD archeologist Logan McNatt. Photo courtesy Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.

Margaret Howard has served as the Archeology Survey Team Leader at the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department since 1994. She came to Texas in 1980 to obtain a Master’s degree in Anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin. She was employed by the private contract archeological firm Prewitt and Associates, Inc. for 12 years, and also worked for 2 years in the National Register Department of the Texas Historical Commission. A past president of the Council of Texas Archeologists and the Texas Archeological Society, Margaret is currently working to increase diversity through the Native American scholarship program for the Texas Archeological Society Field School.


Hueco Tanks State Park and Historic Site
Official website for Hueco Tanks provided by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, with helpful information on how to get there, making reservations for camping, and guided tours.

El Paso Museum of Archaeology
Located at the foothills of the Franklin Mountains, this museum features an excellent collection of Mimbres and other regional pottery, displays of artifacts, reconstructed scenes of the past, and nature trails.

Centennial Museum, University of Texas at El Paso
Located on the UTEP campus, this museum is devoted to the cultural history of El Paso, Juarez, and surrounding areas.

Rupestrian Cyberservices
Website of photographer Robert Mark and chief scientist Evelyn Billo, who have pioneered numerous computer enhancement techniques for rock art.

Print Sources

Barnes, Virgil E.
1983   Geologic Atlas of Texas, Van Horn – El Paso Sheet. Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin.

Bartlett, John Russell
1854   Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora, and Chihuahua, Connected with the United States and Mexican Boundary Commission, During the Years 1850, ’51, ’52, and ’53, Volume I.  D. Appleton & Company, New York. 1965 facsimile edition, The Rio Grande Press, Inc., Chicago.

Baugh, Timothy G., and Fred W. Nelson Jr.
1987   New Mexico Obsidian Sources and Exchange on the Southern Plains. Journal of Field Archaeology 14:313-329.

Bilbo, Michael, Jim McCulloch, and Kay Sutherland
1979   Indicators of Archaic Rock Art Styles in the Jornada Area. In Jornada Mogollon Archaeology: Proceedings of the First Jornada Conference, edited by Patrick H. Beckett and Regge N. Wiseman, pp. 227-271. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.

Bilbo, Michael, and Kay Sutherland
1986   Stylistic Evolution of Rock Art in the Jornada Region. The Artifact 24(3):11-30. El Paso Archaeological Society, El Paso, Texas.

Bullock, Peter Y., Gary A. Hebler, James E. Bowman, and Charles S. Carrig
2005   Knowing the Neighbors: Cross-Cultural Contacts of the Jornada Mogollon. In Archaeology Between the Borders: Proceedings from the 13th Biennial Jornada Mogollon Conference, edited by Marc Thompson, Jason Jurgena, and Lora Jackson, pp. 9-24. El Paso Museum of Archaeology.

Collins, Edward W., and Jay A. Raney
1991   Geologic Map of West Hueco Bolson, El Paso Region, Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin.

Conkling, Roscoe P., and Margaret B. Conkling
1947   The Butterfield Overland Mail 1857-1869; Its Organization and Operation over the Southern Route to 1861; Subsequently over the Central Route to 1866; and under Wells, Fargo and Company in 1869, Volumes I-III. The Arthur H. Clark Company, Glendale, California.

Cool-Flowers, Deborah
2007 Evidence and Implications for Identification of a Master Painter at Hueco Tanks. In Viva La Jornada: Papers from the 14th Biennial Jornada Mogollon Conference edited by Jason Jurgena, Lora Jackson, and Marc Thompson, pp. 77-86. El Paso Museum of Archaeology.

Crimmins, M. L.
1929   An Archaeological Survey of the El Paso District. Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological and Paleontological Society 1:36-42.

Crotty, Helen
1990   Formal Qualities of the Jornada Style and Pueblo IV Anasazi Rock Art: A Comparison with Implications for the Origens of Pueblo Ceremonialism. In American Indian Rock Art, Vol. 16, edited by Solveig Turpin, pp. 147-166. Joint publication of the National Park Service, American Rock Art Research Association, and Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin.

Davis, John V., and Kay S. Toness
1974   A Rock Art Inventory at Hueco Tanks State Park. The Artifact, Special Publication 12. El Paso Archaeological Society, El Paso, Texas.

Hall, Stephen A.
1990   Pollen Evidence for Historic Vegetational Change, Hueco Bolson. The Texas Journal of Science 42(4):399-403.

Hard, Robert J., Pamela Graeber, Jimmie Manasco, Cynthia Tennis, and Kevin Thuesen
1994   Doña Ana Phase Ceramics and Cultural Evolution in the Southern Jornada Mogollon. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 62:267-283.

Hard, Robert J., Raymond P. Mauldin, and Gerry R. Raymond
1996   Mano Size, Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios, and Macrobotanical Remains as Multiple Lines of Evidence of Maize Dependence in the American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3(4):253-318.

Howard, Margaret
2003   Preliminary Report on Archaeological Survey at Hueco Tanks State Historic Site (41EP2), El Paso County, Texas. In Archeology of the Jornada Mogollon: Proceedings from the 12th Jornada Mogollon Conference, compiled by Sonia Padilla and Victor Gibbs, pp. 25-40. Geo-Marine Incorporated Engineering and Environmental Services, Plano, Texas.

Hyman, Marian, Kay Sutherland, Marvin W. Rowe, Ruth Ann Armitage, and John R. Southon
1999   Radiocarbon Analyses of Rock Paintings: Hueco Tanks, Texas. Rock Art Research 16(2):75-88.

Ilger, Wayne, Marian Hyman, John Southon, and Marvin Rowe
1995   Dating Pictographs with Radiocarbon. Proceedings of the 15th Annual 14C Conference, edited by G. T. Cook, D. D. Harkness, B. F. Miller, and E. M. Scott. Radiocarbon 37(2):299-310.

Jackson, A. T.
1938   Picture-Writing of Texas Indians. Publication 3809, The University of Texas, Austin.

Kegley, George
1982   Archeological Investigations at 41EP2, Hueco Tanks State Historical Park, El Paso County, Texas.  Parks Division, Interpretation and Exhibits Branch, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin.

Kirkland, Forrest, and W. W. Newcomb Jr.
1967   The Rock Art of Texas Indians. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Lehmer, Donald J.
1948   The Jornada Branch of the Mogollon. University of Arizona Bulletin XIX, No. 2. Social Science Bulletin 17. University of Arizona, Tucson.

Marcy, Randolph B.
1850   Report of Captain R. B. Marcy. In Reports of the Secretary of War, with Reconnaissances of Routes from San Antonio to El Paso. Senate Executive Document 64. 31st United States Congress, 1st Session.  Washington, D. C.

Miller, Myles R., and Nancy A. Kenmotsu
2004   Prehistory of the Jornada Mogollon and Eastern Trans-Pecos Regions of West Texas. In The Prehistoric Archeology of Texas, edited by Timothy K. Perttula, pp. 205-265. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. Download Download pdf

Mooney, James
1898   Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians. In Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1895-96, Part I, by W. J. McGee, James Mooney, Cosmos Mindeleff, and Jesse Walter Fewkes, pp. 129-468. Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Myers, Terri
1996   Historical Narrative and Cultural Resources Survey: Hueco Tanks State Historical Park. Hardy-Heck-Moore & Associates, Inc., Austin, Texas.

O’Laughlin, Thomas
1980   The Keystone Dam Site and Other Archaic and Formative Sites in Northwest El Paso, Texas. El Paso Centennial Museum Publications in Anthropology 8, University of Texas at El Paso.

Ralph, Ronald W., and Kay Sutherland
1979   Pictograph Conservation at Hueco Tanks State Historical Park: An Initial Experiment. In Jornada Mogollon Archeology: Proceedings of the First Mogollon Conference, edited by Patrick H. Beckett and R. N. Wiseman, pp. 273-294. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.

Rupestrian CyberServices
2000   Hueco Tanks Images (12 compact discs). Rupestrian CyberServices, Inc., Flagstaff, Arizona.

Schaafsma, Polly
1980   Indian Rock Art of the Southwest. University of New Mexico Press.

Schaafsma, Polly, and Curtis F. Schaafsma
1974   Evidence for the Origins of the Pueblo Katchina Cult as Suggested by Southwestern Rock Art. American Antiquity 39(4), Pt 1:535-545.

Sutherland, Kay
1995   Rock Paintings at Hueco Tanks State Historical Park. Texas Parks and Wildlife Press, Austin.

1997   Spirits from the South. The Artifact 34(1-2).  El Paso Archaeological Society, El Paso, Texas.

Thompson, Marc
2007   Unmasked: Icons of Duality at Hueco Tanks. In Viva La Jornada: Papers from the 14th Biennial Jornada Mogollon Conference edited by Jason Jurgena, Lora Jackson, and Marc Thompson, pp. 87-94. El Paso Museum of Archaeology.

Van Devender, Thomas R., and David H. Riskind
1979   Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Plant Remains from Hueco Tanks State Historical Park: The Development of a Refugium. The Southwestern Naturalist 24(1):127-140.