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Credits & Sources

photo of Raymond P. Mauldin
Project Director Raymond P. Mauldin sifts through one of hundreds of screenfulls of dirt excavated during months of fieldwork at Camp Bowie. Photo by Lisa G. Shaddox.

"Exploring Burned Rock Middens at Camp Bowie" was written by Johanna Hunziker, based on research published in several research reports by Raymond Mauldin, Jason Weston, David Nickels, and Cory Broehm at the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). CAR-UTSA is a TBH partner organization. Consultant Phil Dering identified all the plant remains. The Camp Bowie testing program was conducted for the Texas Army National Guard (Adjutant General's Department of Texas, Directorate of Facilities and Engineering, Environmental Branch), who also sponsored this website exhibit. Shellie Sullo represented the Adjutant General's Department of Texas.

Raymond Mauldin has worked in archeology since the mid 1970s and has conducted archeological work throughout Texas and the American Southwest. He received a B.A. from the University of Texas at El Paso, an M.A. from UT Austin, and a Ph.D. from the University of New Mexico. Since 1998, he has worked for the Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio, where he is currently the Assistant Director.

Johanna Hunziker began working in archeology in the mid 1980s in New England. She graduated from the University of Vermont in 1991 with a B.S. in Zoology and a minor in archeology. She has been working in Texas since 1994, much of the time at the University of Texas at San Antonio where she combines her interests in archeology and zoology. She is currently Editor for the Center for Archaeological Research.

Bruce Moses and Richard Young of the CAR graphics department created all of the illustrations.

All unattributed field photographs were taken by CAR staff and are now housed in the TARL archives. The color artifact photos were taken by Steve Black. The Camp Bowie exhibit was developed by TBH editor Susan Dial, who, along with editor Steve Black, contributed to the writing.

Print Sources

Black, Stephen L., and Alston V. Thoms
2014 Hunter-Gatherer Earth Ovens in the Archaeological Record: Fundamental Concepts. American Antiquity 79(2) pp. 203-226. Download article as PDF.

Black, Stephen L., Linda W. Ellis, Darrel G. Creel, and Glenn T. Goode
1997 Hot Rock Cooking on the Greater Edwards Plateau: Four Burned Rock Midden Sites in West Central Texas. Studies in Archeology 22. Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

Bousman, C. Britt
1998 Paleoenvironmental Change in Central Texas. Plains Anthropologist 164(43): 157-172.

Collins, Michael B.
1995 Forty Years of Archeology in Central Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeoloical Society, Austin.

Greaves, Russell D.
2002 Archaeological Testing of Four Sites on Camp Bowie, Brown County, Texas. Archaeological Survey Report, No. 335. Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio.

Mauldin, Raymond P., David L. Nickels, and Cory J. Broehm
2003 Archaeological Testing to Determine the National Register Eligibility Status of 18 Prehistoric Sites on Camp Bowie, Brown County, Texas. Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio Archaeological Survey Report 334. Prepared for Adjutant General's Department of Texas, Directorate of Facilities and Engineering, Environmental Branch.

Thoms, Alston V.
1989 The Northern Roots of Hunter-Gatherer Intensification: Camas and the Pacific Northwest. Ph.D. dissertation, Washington State University. [Available through UMI, Ann Arbor, Michigan]

1998 Earth Ovens. In Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia, Plateau editor, David Pokotylo, pp. 232-235. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York.

1998 Root Foods. In Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia, Plateau editor, David Pokotylo, pp. 264-266. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York.

Treece, Abby C.
1993 Chapter 9: Summary and Conclusions. In Cultural Resource Investigations in the O. H. Ivie Reservoir, Concho, Colman, and Runnels Counties, Texas. Volume III: Data Recovery Results from Non-Ceramic Sites, by A. C. Treece, C. Lintz, W. N. Trierweiler, J. M. Quigg, and K. A. Miller, pp. 477-598. Technical Report No. 346-III. Mariah Associates, Austin, Texas.

Weston, Jason D., and Raymond P. Mauldin
2003 Archaeological Testing of Four Sites on Camp Bowie, Brown County, Texas. Archaeological Survey Report, No. 335. Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio.

Links

http://car.utsa.edu/index.html
Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio

http://www.hort.cornell.edu/department/faculty/wmiller/bulb/what.html
A descriptive compendium on geophytes from the Flower Bulb Research Unit at Cornell University.

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/view/CC/qbc4.html
Handbook of Texas Online's history of Camp Bowie.

http://www.kwanah.com/txmilmus/index.htm
Texas Military Forces Museum

http://www.shumla.org/discover/earthovencooking.htm
Short article on earth oven cooking with a great slide show, by archeologist and paleobotanist J. Phillip Dering, the researcher who identified the plant remains from Camp Bowie. The Shumla School near Comstock, Texas is a non-profit organization dedicated to education through Studying Human Use of Materials, Land, and Art (SHUMLA)

http://www.utexas.edu/research/tarl/bb/Stark.htm
Web presentation of a TARL Brown Bag talk by Richard T. Stark entitled "Maguey Processing in the Sierra Catorce, San Luis Potosi, Mexico: An Ethno-archaeological Case Study." This study documents the continued use of earth ovens to process agave today.

http://plants.usda.gov/
The USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database online, from the National Plant Data Center.